Coliforms are bacteria that are naturally present in the environment and used as an indicator that other, potentially harmful, bacteria may be present. Coliforms found in more samples than allowed is a warning of potential problems.
Not a health threat in itself; it is used to indicate whether other potentially harmful bacteria may be present5
Arsenic is a semi-metal element in the periodic table. It is odorless and tasteless. It enters drinking water supplies from natural deposits in the earth or from agricultural and industrial practices. Approximately 90 percent of industrial arsenic in the U.S. is currently used as a wood preservative, but arsenic is also used in paints, dyes, metals, drugs, soaps, and semi-conductors. Agricultural applications, mining, and smelting also contribute to arsenic releases in the environment.
Skin damage or problems with circulatory systems, and may have increased risk of getting cancer
Trihalomethanes occur when naturally-occurring organic and inorganic materials in the water react with the disinfectants, chlorine and chloramine.
Liver, kidney or central nervous system problems; increased risk of cancer
Haloacetic acids occur when naturally-occurring organic and inorganic materials in the water react with the disinfectants, chlorine and chloramine.
Increased risk of cancer
Fluoride compounds are salts that form when the element, fluorine, combines with minerals in soil or rocks. Many communities add fluoride to their drinking water to promote dental health.
Bone disease (pain and tenderness of the bones); Children may get mottled teeth
Nitrates and nitrites are nitrogen-oxygen chemical units which combine with various organic and inorganic compounds. The greatest use of nitrates is as a fertilizer. Once taken into the body, nitrates are converted to nitrites.
Infants below the age of six months who drink water containing nitrate in excess of the MCL could become seriously ill and, if untreated, may die. Symptoms include shortness of breath and blue-baby syndrome.
Beryllium is an inorganic metallic element in the periodic table. Because it is an element, it does not degrade nor can it be destroyed. Compounds of beryllium are either white or colorless and do not have a particular smell. The greatest use of beryllium is in making metal alloys for nuclear reactors and the aerospace industry. Other uses are as an alloy and oxide in electrical equipment and microwave ovens.
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate is the most commonly used of a group of related chemicals called phthalates or phthalic acid esters. The greatest use of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate is as a plasticizer for polyvinylchloride (PVC) and other polymers including rubber, cellulose and styrene. A number of packaging materials and tubings used in the production of foods and beverages are polyvinylchloride contaminated with phthalic aced esters, primarily di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate.
Reproductive difficulties; liver problems; increased risk of cancer
Antimony is a metal found in natural deposits such as ores containing other elements. The most widely used antimony compound is antimony trioxide, used as a flame retardant. It is also found in batteries, pigments, and ceramics/glass.
Increase in blood cholesterol; decrease in blood sugar
Thallium is a metal found in natural deposits such as ores containing other elements. The greatest use of thallium is in specialized electronic research equipment.
Hair loss; changes in blood; kidney, intestine, or liver problems
Benzene, a volatile organic chemical, is a clear, colorless aromatic liquid. It is highly flammable. It is formed through natural processes, such as volcanoes and forest fires. It is also formed from industrial processes. Benzene is also a natural part of crude oil, gasoline and cigarette smoke. The greatest use of benzene is as a building block for making plastics, rubber, resins and synthetic fabrics like nylon and polyester. Other uses include: as a solvent in printing, paints, dry cleaning, etc.
Anemia; decrease in blood platelets; increased risk of cancer
Dichloromethane, also known as DCM and methylene chloride, is a volatile organic and colorless liquid chemical with a sweet, pleasant odor like chloroform. The greatest use of DCM is as a paint remover. Other uses include: solvent and cleaning agent in chemical manufacture, textiles, electronics, metals and plastics, pesticides industries; blowing and cleaning agent in the urethane foam industry; fumigant for strawberries and grains, and as degreener for citrus fruits; in pharmaceuticals and as an anesthetic; in extraction of caffeine, cocoa, fats, spices and beer hops; as a heat transfer agent in refrigeration products.
Liver problems; increased risk of cancer